ICCROM Mora Samples Collection
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Bab Al-Kalabsha: MRA-EGY-Bab001

Type Sample Item

Sample ID


Sample Material Type

Mural painting

Sample Sub-type


Geographic Location

Bab Al-Kalabsha


Egypt (EGY)
Bab al-Kalabsha
Temple of Kalabsha (also Temple of Mandulis)

Historical note about the site/monument

This temple, dedicated to a Nubian sun god (Mandulis), was built around the year 30 BC, in the Roman period. Located on the west bank of the Nile, it was erected over a previous structure which was a sanctuary to Amenhotep II. Despite being considered an important example of the Egyptian architecture in Nubia, the temple remained incomplete. The building, beautifully decorated by high relieves, was later used as a church, during the period when Christian religion arrived to Egypt. In 1960’s it was necessary to relocate the temple due to the construction of the Aswan High Dam, and the rise of the waters of Lake Nasser, as it was the case of Abu Simbel and other temples.

Further reading:
Oakes, Lorna, Pyramids, Temples and Tombs of Ancient Egypt: An Illustrated Atlas of the Land of the Pharaohs, Hermes House: Anness Publishing Ltd, 2003.
Kamil, Jill, Upper Egypt and Nubia: The Antiquities from Amarna to Abu Simbel, Egyptian International Publishing Company, 1996.

Chronological period (sample)

1st century BC